Pourquoi la Zakat?
The zakât or zakat or zakkat; the Arabic word translated as alms, is the third pillar of Islam.
The Muslim is required to calculate this amount each lunar year (Hegira) and give it to the poorest people in his community.
The scholars are generally unanimous in establishing the starting point for the establishment of Zakat in Year II of the Hegira, corresponding to the establishment of Muslim society after the emigration of Prophet Mohammed (saas) to Medina, being however that this alms had already been instituted at Mecca without its rate being fixed, nor a compulsory amount imposed.
In Surat An-Naml, revealed in Mecca, Allah said :
" Tâ, Sîn. These are the verses of the Qur’an, those of a Clear Book, which is a good direction and good news for believers who observe salât, do zakât and have faith in the future life." Coran 27/1.
Its rate, its conditions and its dispositions were gradually established by the prescriptions revealed in Medina.
El-Jama'a reported from Ibn 'Abbas that when the Prophet (saas) sent Mu'adh Ibn Jabal to Yemen, he said to him :
"You go to people of the Book. Above all, you will invite them to attest that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah; if they accept, inform them that Allah the Most High has instituted them five prayers a day; if they obey you, let them know that they have to pay alms from the wealth of their rich to be distributed to their poor; if they obey you, beware of taking the best of their possessions. Beware of the imprecation of the oppressed, for between her and Allah there is no screen ".
Le mot « Zakat » Arabic means purification. There are also other explanations like growth, blessing and development.
La Zakat, 3e pilier de l’Islam, est citée 28 fois dans le Coran conjointement à la prière, 2ème pilier de l’Islam, démontrant ainsi sa grande importance.
Zakat is a divine obligation enjoining the Muslim with a certain level of wealth (called nissab) to return part of his wealth (usually 2.5%) to beneficiaries whom God (swt) has defined precisely in the Qur'an. It is a right due to the poor on the property of the rich.
Performing Zakat is worship that increases faith. It is a means of purifying one's property of potential illicit gains and the donor of selfishness, greed, and excessive love of money.
Allah says: Say:« My lord dispenses with largesse or restrains His gifts to whom He wills among His servants. And any expense you make (in good), He replaces it, and He is the best of donors. » Coran 34/39.
You are required to pay Zakat if you are:
The overwhelming view is that the child and the incapable of discernment are also required to pay Zakat if their wealth reaches the nissab. It is their guardians or parents who must pay for them.
Make the goods of the orphans grow, so that they are not consumed by the Zakat (rapporté par Mâlik, Shâfi’î, Bayhaqî, Ibn Hajar le déclare sahîh).
Le nissab est la richesse minimale au-delà de laquelle l’acquittement de la Zakat est obligatoire. Le nissab équivaut à 85 g d’or (soit environ 3 200 € le 1er septembre 2016), ou à 595 g d’argent.
The history of nissab
A l’époque du prophète (pbsl), il y existait deux pièces de monnaie différentes pour acheter et vendre. Une pièce d’Or appelée Dinar et une pièce d’Argent appelée Dirham. Une pièce d’Or (Dinar) valait 10 pièces d’Argent (Dirhams).
The Prophet (saas) has himself set the value of the nissab. For example, if one possessed 20 dinars in gold coins or 200 dirhams in silver coins, in addition to his basic needs, one was then indebted for the Zakat.
Contemporary scholars including sheikh Al Qardawi weighed 20 dinars to estimate the value of the nissab today. 20 Dinars equivalent to 85 g of Gold and 200 Dirhams equivalent to 595 g of Silver. But the value of silver has since declined and today, 595 g of silver are worth only about 320 € while 85 g of gold are worth about 3200 €. So today, which nissab should we consider?
There is a divergence on this subject, but the majority of scholars are of the opinion that the nissab of gold must be taken into consideration because it is more stable.
La Zakat se calcule sur l’argent que vous possédez, mais aussi sur plusieurs catégories de biens :
However, your private house or car is not subject to Zakat.
The day your wealth reaches or exceeds the nissab marks the beginning of the lunar year at the end of which you must pay your first Zakat. The Zakat must then be paid each year on this anniversary date.
If you can not remember exactly that date, you will have to try to estimate it.
With regard to the temporal aspect of nissab determination, the Chafiites and Hanbalites believe that Zakat's exigency condition lies in the continued existence of the nissab for a whole lunar year (the hawl) from its beginning to its beginning. end. Thus, if the owner of forty sheep gets to lose one during the hawl and acquires a new one thereafter, the hawl is considered broken.
On the other hand, the Hanafites take into consideration both ends of the hawl. Therefore, according to them, if the nissab is reached at the beginning and at the end of the current lunar year, the Zakat is due even if the good decreases during the year without, however, extinguishing completely.
Respecting this pillar has several important merits to preserve our person and our community.
On the spiritual plane: it allows one to approach God by obedience and to obtain a purification of his wealth and his soul. God reminds each of us that only He owns all the riches that He places at our disposal and that we are only the depositaries; it is an offering of God, which can at any moment increase it, diminish it or even make it disappear.
It is a way to fight against the savings and the excessive love of the goods of this world, by their sharing with those who need it but especially the right. The social system advocated by Islam makes mercy the basis of all social relations.
On the socio-economic level: it guarantees sustainable economic development by fighting poverty and unemployment effectively and permanently.
On the social level: it allows to spread the benefits of Allah on the community by ensuring to create solidarity between the rich and the poor. It contributes to social justice.
This social tax purifier is of paramount importance because it allows the redistribution of wealth in society and ensures a dignified and decent life for everyone, to ensure social stability through a more equitable distribution of wealth between citizens .
Allah has determined in the Qur'an eight categories for the distribution of Zakat.
« Les Sadaquâts ne sont destinées que pour les pauvres, les indigents, ceux qui y travaillent, ceux dont les cœurs sont à gagner (à l’Islam), l’affranchissement des jougs, ceux qui sont lourdement endettés, dans le sentier d’Allah, et pour le voyageur (en détresse). C’est un décret d’Allah! Et Allah est Omniscient et Sage. » Coran 9/60
The people who can not benefit from Zakat are:
La Zakat al fitr ou « l’aumône de la rupture du jeûne » est aussi une obligation pour chaque musulman et doit être versée chaque année à la fin du mois de Ramadan.
La Zakat al fitr purifie le jeûneur des paroles futiles et indécentes et elle est, comme la Zakat al maal, un bienfait pour les pauvres. Cela leur permet de passer la fête de l’Aïd al fitr dans de meilleures conditions, car le Prophète (pbsl) a dit : « Epargnez-leur la mendicité le jour de l’Aïd ».
Selon Ibn ‘Omar (qu’Allah l’agrée) :
« Le Messager d’Allah (pbsl) a rendu obligatoire l’aumône de la rupture du jeûne en versant un saa’ de dattes ou un saa’ d’orge à chaque esclave ou personne libre, mâle ou femelle, petit et grand parmi les musulmans. Puis il a ordonné qu’elle soit remise avant que les gens ne se rendent à la prière (de l’Aïd) » [Rapporté par Al Boukhari, Mouslim, At-Tirmidhi, Abou Daoud, Nassaï et Ibn Madja].
Every Muslim must pay for himself and all those who are his dependents, such as his wife, children, parents and so on. As described in the hadith opposite, it can be offered in the form of a« saa’ » (mesure d’environ 2,7 kg) de blé, de dattes, ou d’autres aliments.
Today, scientists have concluded that it can be given in money